GRACIOUS involves first-class scientists from large companies, government, small and medium enterprises, and academia. These partners have been actively involved in developing the existing grouping, read-across and hazard identification schemes for NMs published by industry (BASF, Nouryon), by policymakers (RIVM, JRC, NRCWE, BfR), and EC funded research projects (e.g. MARINA, ENPRA). At a global level, our partners have also been involved in the OECD activities pertaining to NM grouping (e.g. HWU, NRCWE, RIVM, BfR, BASF), and have participated in over 40 EU and national projects that can contribute relevant knowledge, data, and methods.